Sensationalism | philosophy and psychology (2023)

philosophy and psychology


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Also known as: sensationism

sensationalism, in epistemology and psychology, a form of Empiricism that limits experience as a source of knowledge to sensation or sense perceptions. Sensationalism is a consequence of the notion of the mind as a tabula rasa, or “clean slate.” In ancient Greek philosophy, the Cyrenaics, proponents of a pleasure ethic, subscribed unreservedly to a sensationalist doctrine. The medieval Scholastics’ maxim that “there is nothing in the mind but what was previously in the senses” must be understood with Aristotelian reservations that sense data are converted into concepts. The Empiricism of the 17th century, however—exemplified by Pierre Gassendi, a French neo-Epicurean, and by the Englishmen Thomas Hobbes and John Locke—put a greater emphasis on the role of the senses, in reaction against the followers of René Descartes who stressed the mind’s faculty of reasoning. Locke’s influence on 18th-century French philosophy produced the extreme sensationnisme (or, less often, sensualisme) of Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, who contended that “all our faculties come from the senses or . . . more precisely, from sensations”; that “our sensations are not the very qualities of objects [but] only modifications of our soul”; and that attention is only the sensation’s occupancy of the mind, memory the retention of sensation, and comparison a twofold attention.


What is sensationalism in psychology? ›

sensationalism, in epistemology and psychology, a form of Empiricism that limits experience as a source of knowledge to sensation or sense perceptions.

What is psychologism theory? ›

psychologism, in philosophy, the view that problems of epistemology (i.e., of the validity of human knowledge) can be solved satisfactorily by the psychological study of the development of mental processes.

How do psychology and philosophy overlap? ›

Psychology and philosophy share the same roots: both study primarily of human beings, although one revolves around what the human condition is (philosophy), while the other tries to understand why the human condition is what it is (psychology) and how it functions exactly, given particular contextual locations.

What is the aim of human life according to Aristotle What does he think is required to achieve this aim? ›

To summarise from Pursuit of Happiness (2018), according to Aristotle, the purpose and ultimate goal in life is to achieve eudaimonia ('happiness'). He believed that eudaimonia was not simply virtue, nor pleasure, but rather it was the exercise of virtue.

What are examples of sensationalism? ›

Some tactics include being deliberately obtuse, appealing to emotions, being controversial, intentionally omitting facts and information, being loud and self-centered, and acting to obtain attention.

What is an example of sensational feeling? ›

The physical process during which our sensory organs—those involved with hearing and taste, for example—respond to external stimuli is called sensation. Sensation happens when you eat noodles or feel the wind on your face or hear a car horn honking in the distance.

Who argued against psychologism? ›

Psychologism was notably criticized by Gottlob Frege in his anti-psychologistic work The Foundations of Arithmetic, and many of his works and essays, including his review of Husserl's Philosophy of Arithmetic.

What is teleology in psychology? ›

n. 1. the position that certain phenomena are best understood and explained in terms of their purposes rather than their causes. In psychology, its proponents hold that mental processes are purposive, that is, directed toward a goal.

What is the psychology of dualism? ›

Mind and body dualism represents the metaphysical stance that mind and body are two distinct substances, each with a different essential nature.

What separates psychology from philosophy? ›

Difference Between Philosophy and Psychology. Philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline. Psychology deals with the study of the human mind and its behaviour in a given social context.

Which is better philosophy or psychology? ›

Philosophy studies wisdom while psychology studies the soul. Philosophy and psychology both study humans and how they behave. Whereas philosophy leads to one set of career options, psychology leads to another. Psychology can observe behavior in laboratory settings, but philosophy cannot.

Who is the father of psychology? ›

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (1832–1920) is known to posterity as the “father of experimental psychology” and the founder of the first psychology laboratory (Boring 1950: 317, 322, 344–5), whence he exerted enormous influence on the development of psychology as a discipline, especially in the United States.

What are the 4 types of happiness? ›

Aristotle distinguished between four different levels of happiness.
  • Happiness level 1: Laetus. Happiness from material objects. ...
  • Happiness level 2: Felix. Ego gratification. ...
  • Happiness level 3: Beatitudo. The happiness from doing good for others and making the world a better place. ...
  • Happiness level 4: Sublime Beatitudo.

What is your telos in life? ›

At this point, Aristotle directs his thinking towards human beings specifically. The telos of a human being is to reason. The good for a human being is, therefore, acting in accordance with reason.

What is the supreme purpose of human being? ›

The purpose of life is to live and let live. The societal living is possible when there are communal harmony and feeling of brotherhood among its members. The institutions of family and marriage contribute to the harmonious living in a society. Peaceful coexistence is the key to a successful life.

What is bias by sensationalism? ›

Sensationalism, bias in favor of the exceptional over the ordinary, giving the impression that rare events, such as airplane crashes, are more common than common events, such as automobile crashes.

What is a sensational person? ›

very exciting, or extremely good: She was absolutely sensational in that movie. disapproving Something or someone sensational purposely shocks people and attracts their interest: Readers love sensational crime stories.

What is sensationalist effect? ›

: empiricism that limits experience as a source of knowledge to sensation or sense perceptions. : the use or effect of sensational subject matter or treatment.

What is an example of sensation seeking in psychology? ›

Sensation-seeking can occur through adrenaline-filled extreme sports, like skydiving, mountain climbing, or paratrooping. But it can also be an activity that allows the person to try something completely new, like joining a dance team, or conquer a challenge, like running an ultramarathon.

What is a psychological example of sensation? ›

For example, upon walking into a kitchen and smelling the scent of baking cinnamon rolls, the sensation is the scent receptors detecting the odor of cinnamon, but the perception may be “Mmm, this smells like the bread Grandma used to bake when the family gathered for holidays.”

What is sensational perception? ›

Sensation is our ability to detect senses like touch, pain, vision, or the movement and positioning of our body. Perception is the way in which the brain processes and communicates these senses to the rest of the body. Some may have difficulty detecting sensation at all due to skin integrity or anatomical factors.

What is difference between logic and psychology? ›

Logic, then, deals with the formed concept, formed judgment and reasoning; whereas psychology deals with conception, judgment or reasoning as actual mental processes which are generally attended by feeling, emotion and volition.

What is logic in psychology? ›

n. 1. the branch of epistemology that is concerned with the forms of argument by which a valid conclusion may be drawn from accepted premises. As such, it is also concerned with distinguishing correct from fallacious reasoning (see fallacy).

What does refute mean in psychology? ›

n. in logic and philosophy, the act or process of showing that a statement, theory, or claim is false or invalid. In this sense, denying an argument or claim is not the same as refuting it. —refute vb.

What is the teleological argument for God? ›

The teleological argument is an attempt to prove the existence of God that begins with the observation of the purposiveness of nature. The teleological argument moves to the conclusion that there must exist a designer.

What is the opposite of teleology? ›

The aim is to explore purpose versus cause and effect. In academic disciplines where the word is used regularly, it is juxtaposed with the term deontology. Deontology is essentially teleology's opposite.

What is the meaning of telos in philosophy? ›

This final cause, which Aristotle also calls telos (meaning final end, or completion)23 explains why everything has become and indeed must have become as it is.

What is the mind body problem in psychology? ›

The mind-body problem is the problem of understanding what the relation between the mind and body is, or more precisely, whether mental phenomena are a subset of physical phenomena or not.

What is idealism in psychology? ›

n. 1. in philosophy, the position that reality, including the natural world, is not independent of mind. Positions range from strong forms, holding that mind constitutes the things of reality, to weaker forms, holding that reality is correlated with the workings of the mind.

What is Qualia experience? ›

Qualia are often referred to as the phenomenal properties of experience, and experiences that have qualia are referred to as being phenomenally conscious. Phenomenal consciousness is often contrasted with intentionality (that is, the representational aspects of mental states).

What is the root of psychology? ›

Psychology derives its roots from ancient Greek culture. It literally means “the study of the mind.” According to modern day psychologists, the science of behavior and mental processes is called psychology.

What are the three major philosophical issues in psychology? ›

Define psychology and discuss the three major philosophical issues:
  • free will vs. determinism.
  • dualism vs. monism (mind-brain problem)
  • nature vs. nurture.

What disciplines did psychology originate from? ›

Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of: Philosophy and chemistry.

What came first philosophy or psychology? ›

Psychology evolved from philosophy, science, medicine and theology. Psychology evolved out of a coalescence of natural science and the branch of philosophy known as epistemology or the theory of knowledge.

Which type of psychology is best? ›

Top 5 Highest-Paying Psychology Careers
  • Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. ...
  • Clinical and Counseling Psychologists. ...
  • Forensic Psychologist. ...
  • Military Psychologist. ...
  • Psychiatrist. ...
  • Start Your Education.

Is psychology a science or philosophy? ›

Psychology is commonly recognized as a social science, and is included on the National Science Foundation's roster of recognized STEM disciplines.

Who is the founding mother of psychology? ›

Margaret Floy Washburn
BornJuly 25, 1871 New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedOctober 29, 1939 (aged 68) Poughkeepsie, New York, U.S.
Alma materVassar College (graduated in absentia in 1893), Cornell University
Known forPast president, American Psychological Association
4 more rows

What is the Freudian theory? ›

In simple terms, Sigmund Freud's theory suggests that human behavior is influenced by unconscious memories, thoughts, and urges. This theory also proposes that the psyche comprises three aspects: the id, ego, and superego. The id is entirely unconscious, while the ego operates in the conscious mind.

Who are the four fathers of psychology? ›

Generally, Alfred Adler, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and B.F. Skinner are included on lists of those who most paved the way for modern psychologists.

What are the 3 A's of happiness? ›

The theory suggests that happiness can be described as three distinct elements chosen for their own sakes: positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. These three elements are believed to be more measurable and definitive than happiness.

What is the lowest form of happiness? ›

Level 1: Pleasure

This form of happiness is relatively short-lived and shallow. Examples include a delicious meal, new clothes or even listening to your favorite music. Although not inherently wrong, getting stuck at the first level of happiness is a constant roller coaster of seeking satisfaction in temporary desires.

What are the 7 pillars of happiness? ›

7 pillars of happiness
  • Rich relationships. Who you surround yourself with dictates your happiness. ...
  • Pursue your dreams and goals. ...
  • Service to others. ...
  • Good health. ...
  • Financial security. ...
  • Happy family and friends. ...
  • Enjoy what you do for a living.
Nov 14, 2022

What is the highest form of happiness according to Aristotle? ›

For Aristotle, eudaimonia is the highest human good, the only human good that is desirable for its own sake (as an end in itself) rather than for the sake of something else (as a means toward some other end).

What is the golden ratio philosophy? ›

December 2021) The golden mean or golden middle way is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. It appeared in Greek thought at least as early as the Delphic maxim "nothing in excess", was discussed in Plato's Philebus.

What is Aristotle's theory of happiness? ›

According to Aristotle, happiness consists in achieving, through the course of a whole lifetime, all the goods — health, wealth, knowledge, friends, etc. — that lead to the perfection of human nature and to the enrichment of human life. This requires us to make choices, some of which may be very difficult.

What is the end goal of life? ›

Fulfillment and meaning are the ultimate goals of life.

There's no absolute answer to it. Instead, it's up to us to create meaning in our lives, which can be life's ultimate goal. Meaning is achieved when we identify and do the things that give us fulfillment and satisfaction upon accomplishing them.

What is the ultimate aim of life? ›

Some people believe that the goal of life is to achieve happiness. According to this view, the ultimate purpose of life is to find joy, contentment, and satisfaction in one's pursuits and relationships.

What is the real purpose of life? ›

All life forms share at least one essential purpose: survival. This is even more important than another key purpose for life, reproduction. Plenty of organisms, after all, are alive but do not reproduce. To be alive is more than passing genes along to the next generation.

What defines sensational feeling? ›

: of or relating to sensation or the senses. : arousing or tending to arouse (as by lurid details) a quick, intense, and usually superficial interest, curiosity, or emotional reaction.

What does sensationalize mean simple? ›

to present information in a way that tries to make it as shocking or exciting as possible: They were accused of sensationalizing the story.

What is sensational personality? ›

Sensation-seeking, also called thrill-seeking or excitement-seeking, is the tendency to pursue new and different sensations, feelings, and experiences. The trait describes people who chase novel, complex, and intense sensations, who love experience for its own sake, and who may take risks to pursue those experiences.

What causes sensation in psychology? ›

Sensation occurs when environmental stimuli cause sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, skin, tongue, and nose, to respond and create a neurological impulse in the brain. In simple terms, sensation can be defined as what the sensory organs do.

What are the five characteristics of sensation? ›

Characteristics of Sensation

Sensations of sound, color, smell, taste, cold, and heat differ; they have different sense organs and produce distinct stimuli. Intensity − Sensations of the same quality may sometimes differ in intensity. All sensation differs in intensity and varies from very weak to very intense.

What are the signs of sensation? ›

The main sensory symptoms include numbness, tightness, tingling or burning. At times these sensations are painful but even when they aren't painful, they may change how you move and can affect balance and decrease mobility. The location specifically determines the type of symptoms you may experience.

What is another word for sensationalism? ›

On this page you'll find 14 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to sensationalism, such as: aggrandizement, boasting, excess, fabrication, hype, and hyperbole.

What is another word for sensationalized? ›

make event seem very exciting and shocking

Synonyms: To exaggerate and overstate. aggrandise. aggrandize. exaggerate.

What are the 4 types of sensation seeking? ›

Traditionally, sensation seeking is conceptualized as having four distinct components: experience seeking, thrill and adventure seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility (Zuckerman 2007).

What personality type is most sensitive? ›

INFJs are highly sensitive to the words and deeds of those close to them. INFJ is regarded as the most sensitive personality type. Some estimates suggest that 80 to 90% of people who test as INFJs also test as highly sensitive people, because the traits of the two overlap so much.

What are the 4 dimensions of sensation seeking? ›

There are 4 different aspects (subscales), which are: Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS); Disinhibition (Dis); Experience Seeking (ES); and Boredom Susceptibility (BS).

What are the 5 types of sensation? ›

Sight, Sound, Smell, Taste, and Touch: How the Human Body Receives Sensory Information.

Why is sensation important in psychology? ›

Sensation and perception work seamlessly together to allow us to detect both the presence of, and changes in, the stimuli around us. The study of sensation and perception is exceedingly important for our everyday lives because the knowledge generated by psychologists is used in so many ways to help so many people.

What are the different types of sensation in psychology? ›

Broadly, these sensations can classify into two categories. General sensations which include touch, pain, temperature, proprioception, and pressure. Special Senses: Vision, hearing, taste, and smell which convey sensations to the brain through cranial nerves.

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